The Analysis phase
With the tools provided in the previous phase, we collected information and data that describe the present situation We perhaps used a camera to take photos and produce maps from different perspectives on aspects of the community.
In this phase, we start to analyse the situation. To start with, it is important to deepen our understanding of the concepts of violence and crime; it is also important to increase our understanding of the related concepts of security and safety. The "typology of violence" (see below) is a useful tool which facilitates an analysis and discussion of these crucial concepts.
When analysing risk and protective factors in line with the ecological model [LINK], we look deeper into the social web of our society and gather inputs to reflect, for instance, on the stigmatisation of youth regarding violence and crime. A key idea is to create awareness that young people who are already perpetrators, or at high risk of resorting to violence, need an enabling environment in order to see options and use them.
At the same time, the purpose of this phase is to strengthen proactiveness among the participants. Making huge social changes start with small steps. Everybody can contribute something. The challenge is to work out what makes sense, how it can be done and who needs to co-ordinate and co-operate with whom.
Participatory workshops for analysing data
The tools presented below can be combined in various ways. We propose to use them in one or several workshops. The workshops can be planned using the template of a workshop design.
The quality of the results of these workshops depends on the level of participation. Ensure that you can give a positive answer to the following questions:
- Do all stakeholders participate? For example, governmental and non-governmental institutions, CBOs, different political orientations, women, men, young and older people, marginalised groups, faith-bound organisations, any other structures of civil society.
- Has there been transparency and clarity regarding the process and objectives?
- Do the methods used in the workshops and facilitation allow participation of all participants?
- Are all contributions by participants properly considered in the conclusions and results?
Below you will find some tools which are helpful when you start to work with people on the topics of crime and violence, as well as prevention. They help to get participants to tune in to the topics and the way of working.
Tool 1 - Typology of Violence ( 90 min.)
- To ensure participants are familiar with the typology of violence, as developed by WHO.
- To enable participants to forge links with their own experiences with the proposed systematisation.
- To generate discussion of the forms of violence, and get participants to start to distinguish between violence and non-violence, as well as between violence and crime.
- To ensure that participants have a broader perspective of violence and crime, shifting from a narrower to a wider understanding of violence.
Tool 2 - Risk Factor Analysis ( 90 min.)
- To have participants identify and analyse risk factors on the different levels of the ecological model. To enable participants to place the youth at the centre of their analysis.
- To increase participant awareness that the coincidence of multiple risk factors (that are beyond the control of young people) increases the likelihood of them resorting to violence; and in so doing to discourage and reduce stigmatization of young people.
Tool 3 - Escape from the Prison of Mind ( 90 min.)
- To raise awareness of the situation of many young people in South Africa.
- To get participants to realise the urgency of providing opportunities and avoiding their stigmatisation of young people.
- To get participants to engage in an initial discussion of risk and protective factors in the neighbourhood/community as well as existing activities that contribute to the prevention of violence.
Tool 4 - The Tree of Violence ( 90 min.)
Objective: To identify and understand causes and effects and to understand the relationships between the identified risk factors. This is an important step for later planning and defining measures or action steps. Download
Tool 5 - What makes us strong? (120 min.)
- To engage participants in identifying and analysing protective factors on the different levels of the ecological model.
- To collectively place the youth in the centre of their analysis.
- To identify the respective actors, on different levels who can contribute to a strengthening of the protective factors.
Tool 6 - Market Place of Resources (120 min.)
- To ensure participants are more informed about who is doing what in the area.
- To begin to identify possible areas of co-operation between actors.
Tool 7 - Choosing the Problem or Focus Areas (90 min.)
Objective: To specify which of the problem areas (sometimes also called focus areas) should form the target of the measures to be planned. Download